Ingredients Glossary

 

A

ABSOLUTE
These aromatic substances are obtained by extraction from a single botanical species. For example, rose absolute is derived from rose; jasmine absolute from jasmine and so on. Absolutes may be used like essential oils.
ACACIA DECURRENS FLOWER WAX (ACACIA DECURRENS)
This wax is derived from the flower of the Acacia decurrens, a perennial tree or shrub native to Australia, Africa, the Americas, Europe and areas around the Pacific and Indian oceans. It is commonly used in cosmetic pencils, creams and lip glosses.
ACACIA SENEGAL GUM (ACACIA SENEGAL)
This gummy substance exudes from the small, deciduous Acacia senegal tree, which is native to sub-Saharan Africa, and is also cultivated in Egypt and India. The Acacia genus includes more than 1,200 species of flowering trees and shrubs. A complex polysaccharides and protein mixture that is colorless, tasteless and soluble in cold water, this ingredient naturally holds moisture, making it a perfect addition to hydrating lotions and creams.
ACER SACCHARUM (SUGAR MAPLE) EXTRACT (ACER SACCHARUM)
Extracted from the sap of the maple tree native to North America, this ingredient is a natural source of alpha hydroxy acids. This extract is often found in shampoo, conditioner, hair styling products, body washes and lotions, cleansers, toners and facial moisturizers.
ACMELLA OLERACEA (PARA CRESS) EXTRACT (ACMELLA OLERACEA)
This ingredient is extracted from the upper parts of the small plant that blossoms all year long and has a broad geographical footprint covering the whole tropical zone in South America, Africa and Asia. Called “Mafane” in the Indian Ocean, this plant is used widely in both food and topical preparations.
AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM (HORSE CHESTNUT) EXTRACT (AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM)
This herbal extract is derived from the bark, flower or seeds of the Horse Chestnut tree native to parts of Asia. It has astringent, antioxidant and toning properties. It helps to promote a clear, even complexion and good skin tone. In addition to being found in skin care products, the extract is also a common ingredient in shampoos and conditioners.
ALCOHOL DENAT
Produced by the fermentation of starch or other carbohydrate sources, this ingredient is used as a solvent for extracts and various ingredients. It has a refreshing, astringent effect that promotes clarity in skin care products, including aftershaves and perfumes.
ALOE BARBADENSIS LEAF JUICE/ALOE BARBADENSIS LEAF EXTRACT (ALOE BARBADENSIS)
This viscous gel is cold pressed or mechanically extracted from the leaves of the aloe vera plant, a member of the desert lily family indigenous to East and South Africa. It is a good source of fatty acids, polysaccharides, salicylic acid, saponins, vitamins, minerals and amino acids. With a long history of uses, the gel is moisturizing and soothing. Aloe vera is used in shampoos, hair setting lotions and conditioners, with remarkable results for both the hair and scalp.
ALPHA BISABOLOL
Bisabolol, extracted from the candeia plant, has soothing properties, which make it an ideal ingredient to use in skincare products.
ALPHA HYDROXY ACID
Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) are naturally occurring acids that are derived from plant sugars. AHAs are commonly used in skin care products to gently exfoliate the skin.
AMINO ACIDS
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are crucial to the maintenance of the body. Many of these compounds are beneficial to the skin when included as ingredients in facial and body lotions.
AMYRIS BALSAMIFERA (AMYRIS) OIL (AMYRIS BALSAMIFERA)
This essential oil, steam distilled from the bark of the fallen dried tree, has a pleasant, woody scent.
ANTIOXIDANTS
These substances prevent the formation of free radicals, which can cause the oxidative deterioration that causes premature aging of the skin. Natural antioxidants like vitamins A, C and E are often included in skin care products to reduce the appearance of aging.
ANTHEMIS NOBILIS FLOWER EXTRACT (ANTHEMIS NOBILIS)
This extract is steam-distilled from the flowers of what is commonly known as the Chamomile plant, grown extensively in Central and Eastern Europe. The yellow liquid has a warm, sweet, herbaceous scent. It is used in cosmetics, soaps, detergents, perfumes and hair and bath products, and is used as a flavor in most major food categories.
ARCTUM LAPPA (BURDOCK) ROOT EXTRACT (ARCTIUM LAPPA)
Extracted by maceration from the roots of a leafy biennial native to Europe and Asia, this ingredient is rich in minerals like potassium, phosphorous, chromium, iron and zinc, plus vitamin B complex and vitamin E.
AROMATHERAPY
Based on the belief that smell is an important part of healing, this traditional therapy has been used since ancient times to soothe both body and mind. Essences of flower petals, leaves, twigs roots and other natural elements are extracted mixed with oils for massaging the body or rubbing into the hands. Additionally, they are often used to infuse of soaps, cosmetics and ointments with restorative and energizing scents.
ASCORBIC ACID (VITAMIN C)
A preservative and antioxidant widely used in cosmetic creams, hair dyes and conditioners.
AVENA SATIVA (OAT) KERNEL FLOUR (AVENA SATIVA)
Common oat kernels are ground to produce this ingredient rich in moisturizing, humectant and antioxidant properties. In hair care products, it helps condition and improve manageability.
AVENA SATIVA (OAT) KERNEL OIL (AVENA SATIVA)
The fixed oil expressed from common oat kernels has excellent emollient and antioxidant properties. These make it a popular ingredient in personal care products to improve both skin and hair.

B

BARRIER CREAM
This type of cream produces a protective coating when applied to the skin and provides a barrier against the elements. Generally, barrier creams are quite oily products or contain lanolin.
BEE POLLEN EXTRACT
Often referred to as nature’s most complete food, bee pollen consists of plant pollens collected by worker bees combined with plant nectar and bee saliva. Full of vitamins A, B, C, D, and E, it provides well-balanced benefits.
BEESWAX
One of the oldest and purest waxes, this substance is derived from the bee honeycomb. Beeswax is widely used in the cosmetics industry as an emulsifier, emollient and thickener, giving rich texture to creams, lotions, lipsticks, mascara and salves. Beeswax can be added to soap as part of the oil content to increase hardness of the final bar. Its high melting point makes it a popular material for candles, as it burns slowly.
BENTONITE
This sedimentary clay is composed of weathered and aged volcanic ash. The largest and most active deposits come from Wyoming and Montana in the United States. It is used in cosmetics, bath products, oily hair and scalp treatments and mud packs.
BERTHOLLETIA EXCELSA (BRAZIL NUT) SEED OIL (BERTHOLLETIA EXCELSA)
The cold-pressed oil from the fruit of the Brazil Nut Tree is light, yet highly nourishing and rich in essential fatty acids, selenium and vitamins. It is composed of liposoluble vitamins, such as A and E, which are essential for protecting the skin. Its light texture, quick absorption and sweet aroma give this natural emollient great versatility for use in a wide array of innovative personal care products, especially those formulated for lip, hair, and skin care.
BETA-CAROTENE
This plant-derived substance is converted to vitamin A by the body. Carotenoids were first isolated in the early 19th century, and have been used as food colorings since the 1950s. In skin care products, beta-carotene is a great natural colorant.
BETAINE
This nitrogenous compound, similar to an amino acid, is found in the roots of sugar beets (Beta vulgaris), native to Europe, North Africa and Asia.
BETULA ALBA (WHITE BIRCH) BARK EXTRACT (BETULA ALBA)
Steam distilled from the bark of birch trees native to Russia, this substance has been used to treat the skin for centuries.
BIXA ORELLANA (ANNATTO) SEED EXTRACT
Extracted from the dried pulp of the fruit, this ingredient originates in Tropical America and the East and West Indies. Traditionally, annatto has been used as a colorant, but it can also be used as an emollient. The high carotenoid content provides antioxidant properties.
BORAGO OFFICINALIS (BORAGE) SEED OIL (BORAGO OFFICINALIS)
Cold pressed from the seeds of the beautiful borage plant, this oil is a rich source of gamma linolenic acid, an essential fatty acid that helps maintain healthy skin. The oil is commonly used in skin creams and lotions, as well as hair products.
BOTANICAL EXTRACT
An extract of herbs and plants, dissolved with water oil or alcohol.
BUTTERMILK POWDER
Buttermilk is the liquid left after hand churning butter, following the reaction with naturally occurring airborne bacteria. The powder formed when buttermilk is dehydrated is soothing and moisturizing when used alone as a bath soak or included in milk baths, bath salts or other formulations. Some formulas combine buttermilk powder with other skin-soothing natural powders like cornstarch, powdered herbs, oatmeal or rice bran.
BUTYROSPERMUM PARKII (SHEA BUTTER) (BUTYROSPERMUM PARKII)
This fat obtained from the fruit of the African karate tree, has moisturizing and healing properties. It is naturally rich in vitamins A, E, and F, as well as a number of other vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids, which help soothe, balance and hydrate the skin.

C

CALCIUM CARBONATE
This chemical compound is generally found in rocks, and can also be produced from a pure quarried source (usually marble), or prepared by passing carbon dioxide into a solution of calcium hydroxide.
CALENDULA OFFICINALIS (CALENDULA) FLOWER EXTRACT/OIL (CALENDULA OFFICINALIS)
This extract is derived from the Marigold flower, a plant with beneficial properties.
CAMELLIA SINENSIS (GREEN TEA) LEAF EXTRACT (CAMELLIA SINENSIS)
The extract of the leaves of a perennial evergreen shrub native to Asia, this ingredient has a long history of use, dating back to China approximately 5,000 years ago. Green tea extract is a rich source of antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E.
CAMPHOR (CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA)
Steam distilled from the Cinnamomum camphora tree found in Asia, Africa and the Americas, this essential oil has a strong, penetrating, fragrant odor, a bitter, pungent taste, and is cooling and highly stimulating to the skin. Camphor essential oil is used primarily in lip balms.
CANANGA ODORATE (YLANG YLANG) FLOWER EXTRACT/OIL (CANANGA ODORATA)
Steam distilled from the flower of this plant native to the Philippines and Indonesia, the essential oil of ylang ylang has a lovely fragrance in additional to its skin and hair conditioning properties.
CANNABIS SATIVA (HEMP) SEED OIL (CANNABIS SATIVA)
Commonly cultivated in Europe, Asia, North America and Chile, hemp seed oil can be used to nourish the skin and hair because of its high content of proteins and essential fatty acids.
CANOLA OIL (BRASSICA CAMPETSTRIS)
This oil is low erucic acid is very high in minerals, vitamins and gamma linolenic acids. It is also very affordable and suitable for all skin types. It is used most often in personal care products as a carrier oil.
CARAMEL
This concentrated solution of heated sugar has been used since ancient times as a sweet treat. Today, it is also used as a natural coloring agent for foods and cosmetics.
CARMINE
We are aware that for some people who adhere to strict vegan or vegetarian lifestyles, it is hard to understand why we would choose to use this ingredient in our products. Carmine, as you may already know, is an extract taken from the shells of the cochineal beetle. It is a common ingredient used in the cosmetic and food industry. We choose to use this ingredient because it is natural and it provides a unique red/blue pigment in our formulas, without compromising our product quality and aesthetic standards. We believe it is a better alternative to compounds such as D&C Red #7, D&C Red #6, which are 100% synthetic, or FD&C No. 40, which is derived from coal tar (a non renewable fossil fuel). While there are other natural pigments, we do not feel they provide a desirable color and feel and we will continue to investigate raw natural materials that could replicate the properties of carmine in our color products.
CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS (SAFFLOWER) OLEOSOMES (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS)
No solvents or chemicals are used in the gentle extraction process used to capture the oleosomes of this plant in the sunflower family. This protein-protected seed oil, marketed as Hydresia™, is isolated from the seed fully intact. It is a natural base that acts as an emulsifier, emollient and moisturizer in one. This oil is an effective and popular ingredient in leave-on products such as skin and lip balms, creams, soaps, massage oils and hair care products, as well as rinse-off products like salt and sugar scrubs and dispersing bath oils.
CARRIER OILS
Extracted from nuts, kernels, seeds, these oils are sometimes called vegetable oils. They are used to dilute essential oils, which are very concentrated and cannot be used directly on the skin because they can cause irritation. Examples of common carrier oils include: sweet almond, apricot kernel, avocado, grape seed, olive and wheat germ.
CARYA ILLINOENSIS (PECAN) SHELL POWDER (CARYA ILLINOENSIS)
Made from the dried, ground shells of the pecan nut it is often used as a gentle, natural exfoliant in body and facial scrubs.
CENTAUREA CYANUS FLOWER EXTRACT (CENTAUREA CYANUS)
Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) is native to Europe, where it is considered a weed in fields. However, it is also used as an ornamental flower because of its intense blue flowers, and has become naturalized in North America and Australia.
CETEARYL ALCOHOL
Not an “alcohol” such as ethyl or rubbing alcohol, this ingredient is actually an emulsifying wax made by combining fatty alcohols derived from vegetable sources. It is used as an emulsifier and emollient.
CETRIMONIUM BROMIDE
A cationic surfactant that is an effective ingredient in cream rinses and conditioners, smoothing damaged hair and leaving a uniquely light feel to hair.
CETYL ALCOHOL
This natural nonionic surfactant is derived from coconut and palm oils. While it’s a fatty alcohol, it is not an “alcohol” like ethyl or rubbing alcohol. Cetyl alcohol widely used as a softener, emulsifier and thickener in skin creams and lotions, as well in shampoos and conditioners.
CHAMOMILLA RECUTITA (MATRICARIA) FLOWER EXTRACT (CHAMOMILLA RECUTITA)
Steam distilled from the flower heads of German Chamomile, this essential oil has a high content of azulene, which gives it a deep blue color.
CHLOROPHENESIN
One of the newest preservative agents in the personal care arena. When chlorophenesin is combined with other preservative actives, its overall performance is boosted, making it a good choice for preservation and stabilization.
CHLOROPHYLL
This natural colorant is a green pigment found in most plants, algae and cyanobacteria. It is essential for photosynthesis, and to add color to personal care products, naturally.
CHONDRUS CRISPUS (CARRAGEENAN) EXTRACT (CHONDRUS CRISPUS)
Derived from dried Irish moss, which grows along the Atlantic coasts of both Europe and North America, this ingredient is a good source of polysaccharides, proteins, iodine and bromine. Its soothing, protective and nourishing properties, as well as its effectiveness as a thickener and stabilizer make it a common ingredient in cosmetics and hair care products. It is often found in bath salts and teas, facials, body wraps and detoxifying bath blends and soaps.
CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM (CINNAMON) OIL
This essential oil is steam distilled from the bark of the tree. Cinnamon oil is native to Indonesia, but cultivated in Sri Lanka, India and Madagascar.
CITRIC ACID
This natural alpha hydroxy acid, derived from various citrus fruits, is used in cosmetics to adjust the pH level to prevent personal care formulas from becoming too alkaline. It also acts as a mild acidic preservative and gentle exfoliant for skin.
CITRUS AURANTIFOLIA (LIME) EXTRACT/OIL (CITRUS AURANTIFOLIA)
Cold pressed or steam distilled from the peel of the fruit of lime trees found in tropical climates throughout the world. Lime is often used for shave products, body washes and shampoos.
CITRUS AURANTIUM (PETIGRAIN) EXTRACT/OIL (CITRUS AURATIUM)
Steam distilled from the dark green glossy leaves and small leaf-bearing twigs of the orange tree, this non-toxic, non-irritating and non-sensitizing oil is one of three oils derived from the orange tree. It has a fresh, flowery, lightly citrus scent. The essential oil blends well with sweeter scents with similar properties because it helps to balance out the fragrance. It is an effective gentle cleanser, making it suitable for products formulated for oily skin and acne.
CITRUS AURANTIUM (NEROLI) EXTRACT/OIL (CITRUS AURANTIUM)
Distilled from the blossoms of the bitter orange tree, this essential oil has a floral citrus aroma.
CITRUS AURANTIUM AMARA (BITTER ORANGE) EXTRACT/OIL (CITRUS AMARA)
This essential oil is cold pressed from the peel of the bitter orange, native to Asia. It has a very heavy sweet citrus smell, with a slight bitterness, like grapefruit.
CITRUS AURATIUM BERGAMIA (BERGAMOT) FRUIT/LEAF OIL (CITRUS AURANTIUM BERGAMIA)
Cold pressed from the peel of the fruit of this Italian tree, the oil has been used for many years. The oil is one of the most widely used in the perfumery and toiletry industry, and is popular in blended massage and bath oils.
CITRUS AURANTIUM DULCIS (SWEET ORANGE) FRUIT EXTRACT/OIL & PEEL EXTRACT/OIL (CITRUS AURANTIUM DULCIS)
Cold pressed from the fruit and peel of orange trees native to China and India, now cultivated in Brazil, Cypress, Israel, Mexico and the United States, this ingredient is valued for its zesty and refreshing, sweet-yet-tart aroma. The peel is used as a natural chemical exfoliator in facial washes and scrubs.
CITRUS AURANTIUM DULCIS (SWEET ORANGE) PEEL WAX (CITRUS AURANTIUM DULCIS)
Cold pressed from the fruit and peel of orange trees native to Asia, North America, the Mediterranean and the Middle East, this semi-solid wax is an excellent emollient, containing phytosterols. These phytosterols aid in stabilizing emulsions. The wax is becoming a popular ingredient in leading lotions and creams, adding a beautiful orange citrus fragrance that is very similar in note to orange essential oil.
CITRUS GRANDIS (GRAPEFRUIT) FRUIT EXTRACT
This essential oil is cold pressed from the peel of the fruit of the grapefruit tree, native to India. It has a fresh aroma.
CITRUS MEDICA LIMONIUM (LEMON) PEEL OIL/EXTRACT (CITRUS MEDICA LIMONIUM)
This essential oil is cold expressed from the peel of the fruit of the lemon tree, native to India, but grown around the world today.
CITRUS MEDICA LIMONIUM (LEMON) FRUIT OIL (CITRUS LIMONIUM)
This essential oil has a clean, sharp, and refreshing scent. In cosmetics formulas, the botanical can help control oil.
CITRUS NOBILIS (MANDARIN) OIL (CITRUS NOBILIS)
This essential oil is expressed from the peel of the mandarin orange, native to China but today is grown throughout the Mediterranean, the Middle East and the Americas. It is non-toxic, non-irritating and non-sensitizing, and is used as a flavoring agent especially in confectionery, soft drinks and liqueurs, as well as providing a soothing scent in soaps, cosmetics and perfumes.
CITRUS RETICULATA (TANGERINE) OIL (CITRUS RETICULATA)
This essential oil is a sweet citrus oil with a pleasing scent. It is a good toner for oily skin.
COCO-BETAINE
The inner salt derived from coconut oil, this ingredient is one of the most commonly used naturally-derived surfactants in the personal care industry. It is a high foaming surfactant that bubbles up quickly, but the bubbles don’t last very long before dissipating. Traditionally this ingredient has only been considered as a co-surfactant. It is a mild cleanser, which makes it ideal for products that must be gentle, such as baby formulations, or in formulas where foam is of the most importance and cleansing is a secondary concern, such as bubble baths.
COCO-GLUCOSIDE
An anionic surfactant derived from coconut oil, this ingredient moisturizes skin and hair. In hair care products, it smoothes hair structure to improve manageability.
COCOS NUCIFERA (COCONUT) OIL (COCOS NUCIFERA)
Cold pressed from the fruit of palm trees, which are native to the tropics and grown in sandy soil, this oil is light, non-greasy, exceptionally emollient and has cooling properties. It is a great oil for use as a general moisturizer. Coconut oil is commonly used to promote lather in soaps and gels, and can be incorporated well into balms and stick formulations. It is often found in lipsticks, soaps, ointments, massage creams and sunscreens.
COLLAGEN
This protein is the most abundant in the human body, containing mainly glycerin, hydroxyproline and prioline. It is found in all connective tissues, including skin, cartilage, tendons and ligaments. When the collagen in the skin deteriorates due to aging or overexposure to the sun, wrinkles appear. The substance is sometimes used in cosmetics and toiletries to combat these effects, though there is no evidence that external application is effective.
COPERNICIA CERIFERA (CARNAUBA) WAX (COPERNICIA CERIFERA)
This vegetable wax is derived from the leaves of the carnuba palm, native to Brazil. It is used in tablet and candy coatings. Carnauba wax is often used in conjunction with beeswax or candelilla in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, such as lip balms, lipsticks, body butters, creams, lotions and hair pomades. Because it is extremely hard, it is also used to produce a glossy finish in automotive waxes, shoe polishes and floor and wood polishes.
CORIANDRUM OFFICINALIS (CORIANDER) FRUIT EXTRACT/OIL (CORIANDRUM OFFICINALIS)
This warm, sweet, spicy essential oil is steam distilled from the seeds of Coriandum sativum, native to Russia. Coriander essential oil lends an interesting note to fragrance blends.
CORYLUS AVELLANA (HAZELNUT) SEED OIL (CORYLUS AVELLANA)
Expeller pressed from the seeds of a small deciduous tree that grows in the wild in Northern Europe, this carrier oil is packed with nourishing vitamins, minerals and proteins. Natural cosmetics and perfumes often contain hazelnut oil, as do beauty creams and milks, cleansing products, sun care products, massage oils, lipsticks foaming baths and facial products for oily or combination skin.
CUCURBITA PEPO (PUMPKIN) SEED OIL (CUCURBITA PEPO)
Cold pressed from the seeds of pumpkins grown throughout the world, this dark, highly emollient oil is rich in vitamins A, C, E, K and zinc. Its high amounts of poly-unsaturated fatty acids, natural vitamin E and beta carotene, make it a natural for promoting healthy skin and a popular ingredient in lotions, soaps, creams, massage products, and suntan lotions.
CUPRESSUS SEMPERVIRENS (CYPRESS) OIL (CUPRESSUS SEMPERVIRENS)
Extracted by steam distillation from the needles and twigs of evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region, this essential oil is commonly used in massage blends and aromatherapy. It is non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing.
CYMBOPOGON NARDUS (CITRONELLA) OIL
Grown mainly in Sri Lanka and Java, the sweet, lemony smell of this essential oil has been used extensively in perfumes, soaps, lotions and deodorizing cosmetics. Distilled from cut grass, citronella is most often used as an insect repellent.
CYMBOPOGON MARTINI (PALMAROSA) OIL (CYMBOPOGON MARTINI)
Steam distilled from the grass of the “Indian Geranium,” this essential oil has a sweet, floral fragrance similar to a combination of geranium and rose, with a slight citrus note. Non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing, it is used extensively as a fragrance in cosmetics, perfumes and especially soaps.
CYMBOPOGON SCHOENANTHUS (LEMONGRASS) OIL (CYMBOPOGON SCHOENANTHUS)
Steam distilled from the dried leaves of a wild grass native to India, this oil has a lemony, sweet smell. This oil may be used as an insect repellant.

D

DAUCUS CAROTA SAVITA (CARROT) SEED EXTRACT/OIL (DAUCUS CAROTA)
This essential oil with a heavy, woodsy scent is steam distilled from the seeds of European wild carrots, which are a close cousin of the orange carrots we eat. It is rich in beta-carotene and vitamin A, making it beneficial for healthy skin and hair.
ARTEMISIA PALLENS (DAVANA) SEED EXTRACT/OIL (ARTEMISIA PALLENS)
This essential oil is steam distilled from the leaves of the overground parts of a flowering herb grown in southern India. It is very dark green or brownish green in color and has a sharp, penetrating odor that is foliage like and powerfully herbaceous with a sweet balsamic backnote. It is used primarily as a fragrance in personal care products, and is used in aromatherapy for its fragrance properties.
DECYL GLUCOSIDE
This ingredient is produced by the reaction of glucose from cornstarch with the fatty alcohol decanol, which is derived from coconut oil. It is biodegradable, non-toxic, non-irritating and will not block pores. This extremely mild and effective non-ionic cleanser creates an excellent lather, rinses quickly, is biodegradable and offers a natural alternative to harsh surfactants like Sodium Laurel Sulfate. Decyl glucoside is used in a wide variety of personal care products, including products for individuals with sensitive skin.
DIOSCOREA VILLOSA (WILD YAM) ROOT EXTRACT (DIOSCOREA VILLOSA)
Derived from the root of a twining tuberous vine native to North America, this ingredient has a beneficial effect on skin.

E

ECHINACEA PURPUREA EXTRACT
Derived by maceration from a perennial native to North America, Echinacea is a gentle skin conditioner. It is used in shampoo, conditioner and various skin care products.
ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM (CARDAMOM) SEED EXTRACT/OIL (ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM)
Derived by maceration or steam distillation of the seeds of a tree found in southern India, Sri Lanka, Tanzania and Guatemala, this ingredient is a pungent, warm aromatic herb that is used as a skin conditioner and soothing agent.
EMOLLIENT
This general term is applied to various skin conditioning agents that help maintain the appearance of the skin. While the terms “emollient” and “moisturizer” are often used interchangeably, the two functions are different but often occur at the same time.
EMULSIFIER
This type of agent is used to assist in the production of an emulsion. Emulsifiers enable oils to be dispersed throughout a water base to form a cream or lotion that does not separate.
EMULSION
This is a stable system in which two liquids that would not normally mix together are held in suspension by a small amount of an emulsifier.
EQUISETUM HIEMALE LEAF/STEM EXTRACT (EQUISETUM HIEMALE)
Derived by maceration from the leaves and stems of the horsetail plant native to Europe, North Africa, Northern Asia and the Americas, this ingredient is rich in silica and other minerals, and is valued for its high levels of amino acids and phytosterols. The extract also contains saponins, which create lather, and flavone-glycosides.
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
There are two families of essential fatty acids, which play a role in various biological processes, but cannot be produced by the body. Omega-3s (alpha-linolenic acid or ALA) and omega-6s (linoleic acid) are found in many common seed and vegetable oils. Seed oils are the richest sources of ALA, notably those of rapeseed (canola), soybeans, walnuts, flaxseed (Linseed), perilla, chia and hemp. When included in skin care formulas, they can be effective in the formulation.
ESSENTIAL OILS
These oils are volatile, rapidly evaporating oils obtained from the leaves, stems, flowers, seeds or roots of a plant that usually carry the odor characteristic of the plant. Most essential oils are produced by steam distillation, although several are mechanically expressed. Essential oils add fragrance to skin care products, as well as contribute to their beautifying qualities through their various abilities. True essential oils must be plant derived.
ESTER
This type of compound is formed by the reaction of an acid or an alcohol. The esters used in cosmetics are usually emollients that help products spread easily and penetrate into the contours of the skin more readily.
EUCALYPTUS GOBULUS (EUCALYPTUS) LEAF EXTRACT/OIL (EUCALYPTIS GLOBULUS)
Steam distilled or macerated from the leaves and twigs of eucalyptus grown in Australia, China and Portugal, this essential oil is a wonderful addition to cosmetic formulations
EUGENIA CARYOPHYLLUS (CLOVE) FLOWER EXTRACT/OIL (EUGENIA CARYOPHYLLUS)
Steam distilled from the leaves, stem and buds of a slender evergreen native to Indonesia and the Malacca Islands, this oil has a warm, spicy scent.
EUPHORBIA CERIFERA (CANDELILLA) WAX (EUPHORBIA CERIFERA)
This hard vegetable wax is found on the leaves of a small shrub native to Mexico and the southwestern United States. It is best known as the ingredient that makes chewing gum chewy and gives it the ability to hold its flavor. The wax has superior molding properties. It is used to provide shine and lock in moisture in skincare products and cosmetics like lip balms, lipsticks, body butters, creams, lotions, hair pomades and other products.
EUPHRASIA OFFICINALIS (EYEBRIGHT) LEAF EXTRACT (EUPHRASIA OFFICINALIS)
Extracts of eyebright are often used in skin care creams designed for the eye area because of the plant’s skin conditioning and soothing properties.
EXFOLIANT
A product or ingredient that is used to remove dead skin cells or waste products from the skin. Exfoliants mechanically removed dirt using a gently abrasive action, leaving the skin soft and smooth.

F

FLAVOR
The particular aromatic blend of essential oils added to a product to impart a taste.
FOENICULUM VULGARE (FENNEL) SEED EXTRACT/OIL (FOENICULUM VULGARE)
Steam distilled from the seeds of a bush native to the Mediterranean, this essential oil is a good cleansing oil. Fennel can be used as a gentle cleanser and skin toner.
FRAGRANCE
The particular aromatic blend of essential oils added to a product to impart a scent.
FREE RADICAL
These highly reactive atoms or molecules can cause cellular damage, impairing the immune system and leading to degenerative diseases. They also are known contributors to premature aging of the skin.
FUCUS VESICULOSUS (BLADDERWRACK) EXTRACT (FUCUS VESICULOSUS)
This ingredient is derived by maceration from brown seaweed harvested in cool ocean waters around the world. It is a source of potassium, iodine, vitamins A and D and some protein, which make it desirable for skin and hair care. It can be used for its thickening properties in creams and lotions. Great in baths, it provides various minerals and salts that cleanse and refresh skin.

G

GLUCOSE
This product of photosynthesis in plants is an organic compound found in fruits and honey. A simple sugar, or monosaccharide, glucose is used in many industries, including cosmetics.
GLUCOSE OXIDASE
Glucose oxidase is found in honey and acts as a natural preservative.
GLYCERIN
This sweet-tasting, clear, syrupy liquid is made by combining water and fats derived from vegetable oil. Glycerin is used in moisturizers due to its water binding capabilities. Non-irritating and soothing, it can be used on even the most sensitive skin, and is a common ingredient in clear soaps.
GLYCERYL OLEATE
Used as an emulsifier, this natural surfactant made from sunflower oil is an extremely mild and effective cleanser that rinses quickly.
GLYCINE SOJA (SOYBEAN) OIL (GLYCINE SOJA)
Cold pressed from beans native to southwestern Asia and cultivated worldwide in warm regions, this oil is high in linoleic acid, contains proteins and some vitamin A, C, E, and K. It also contains lecithin, which is known for its emulsifying and antioxidant properties. Soybean is a light-textured, nourishing, easily absorbed, odorless oil, suitable as a moisturizer and softener for all skin types. This oil is commonly found in soaps, moisturizers, lipsticks and shampoos.

H

HAMAMELIS VIRGINIANA (WITCH HAZEL) BARK/LEAF/TWIG EXTRACT (HAMAMELIS VIGINIANA)
Derived by maceration or steam distillation from a shrub indigenous to North America and cultivated in Europe, this extract has antioxidant properties. It also can be used as a toner, as it is particularly beneficial in clearing oily skin.
HEDYCHIUM GARDNERIANUM (HAWAIIAN GINGER) EXTRACT
Originating from India and now grown in Hawaii and other tropical areas, this ingredient is most commonly used as an exfoliant in soaps and creams.
HELIANTHUS ANNUUS (SUNFLOWER) SEED OIL (HELLANTHUS ANNUUS)
Cold pressed from specially cultivated sunflower seeds, this highly versatile oil is valued for containing more vitamin E than any other vegetable oil. It is also naturally high in vitamins A and D, lecithin and the essential fatty acid Omega 9. Sunflower oil absorbs quickly and can be used in creams, lotions, scrubs and any personal care product where a light oil is desired.
HERBS
Plants or plant parts that are valued for their medicinal or aromatic qualities.
HONEY
This sweet, viscous fluid produced by honeybees is one of the oldest natural skin care ingredients. It has been used in skin care for its skin softening properties. Honey is rich in amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Honey powder is used in creams, lotions, soaps, scrubs, facials, masks, body wraps, bath teas, milk baths, bath salts and bath bombs.
HUMECTANT
This type of substance preserves the moisture or water content of the skin. The most effective humectants are alpha hydroxy acids, particularly lactic acid, which, when applied to the skin, draws water from the deeper layers of skin to the surface.
HUMULUS LUPULUS (HOPS) EXTRACT (HUMULUS LUPULUS)
Derived from the dried pinecone-like fruit of the hop plant grown in Europe, Asia and North America, this ingredient is used in cosmetics for its beneficial properties.
HYDRASTIS CANADENSIS (GOLDEN SEAL) EXTRACT (HYDRASTIS CANADENSIS)
Steam distilled from the root of a bush that grows wild in mountainous areas of North America, this herb’s name comes from the golden color on the root of the plant. The extract is high in vitamins A, C and E, as well as B complex.
HYDRATING
Supplying with ample fluid or water.
HYDROGENATED JOJOBA OIL
This hard, crystalline wax is made by adding hydrogen to unsaturated jojoba oil, a liquid wax found in the seed of the small, tree-like jojoba plant, native to the southwestern United States and Mexico. The oil is widely used as an emollient, or skin softener, and is a popular addition to cosmetics.
HYDROLYZED WHEAT PROTEIN
This protein has been partially turned into water through hydrolysis. Plant proteins have excellent skin compatibility and when used in personal care products.
HYDROXYPROPYLTRIMONIUM HONEY
This emollient, derived from honey, is a good moisturizer for hair and scalp.
HYPERICUM PERFORATUM (ST. JOHN’S WORT) FLOWER/LEAF/STEM EXTRACT (HYPERICUM PERFORATUM)
Derived by maceration of a plant that grows wild throughout much of the world, this extract has many beneficial properties. It is useful in creams and lotions made to soothe the skin.
HYSSOPUS OFFICINALIS (HYSSOP) LEAF OIL (HYSSOP OFFICINALIS)
Steam distilled from the leaves and flowers of a Mediterranean shrub, this oil can be used in a blended massage oil, bath oil, or as an ingredient in a creams or lotions to help improve the skin.

I

ILLICIUM VERUM (ANISE) OIL (ILLICIUM VERUM)
This essential oil possesses a fragrant aroma similar to licorice.
ILLITE CLAY
This green clay is often mistaken for French Green Clay (montmorillonite), to which it is similar. It is used for exfoliation of the skin, and can also be used in soaps and body/foot powders.
IMPATIENS CAPENSIS (JEWELWEED) EXTRACT
Cultivated in eastern North America, this ingredient has many properties that are beneficial to the skin.
INFUSION
Herbal remedy made by steeping the plant material in water.
IRON OXIDES
This FDA-approved natural colorant for personal care products and cosmetics is made from iron that has been oxidized. It varies in color, but it is usually yellow, red or black, depending on the degree of water added and the purity.

J

JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS (JUNIPER) OIL (JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS)
This essential oil has a fresh, woody aroma. It is extracted from dried, crushed or slightly dried ripe fruit by steam distillation. Juniper oil can be used in massage oil or diluted in the bath.
JUNIPERUS MEXICANA (CEDARWOOD) OIL (JUNIPERUS MEXICANA)
Steam distilled from the wood of this large red cedar grown in North America, this oil has beneficial properties that make it ideal for inclusion in formulations for the skin.
JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA (CEDARWOOD) OIL (JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA)
Steam distilled from the wood of this slow-growing, coniferous evergreen native to Canada, this essential oil helps to combat oily skin.

K

KAOLIN
Also known as China or white clay, this is the mildest of all clays. A fine, fluffy powder clay that swells in water, it makes a great thickening ingredient. It is naturally absorbent and effective in skin masks, body packs, skin care products, body powders and deodorants.

L

LACTOPEROXIDASE
This naturally existing enzyme is found in raw milk and has antioxidant properties.
LANOLIN
This substance is secreted by the oil glands of sheep. It lubricates, protects and soothes the skin without unpleasant stickiness, and is extremely effective in preventing water loss from hair and skin. It is often found in lipsticks, liquid powders, mascaras, nail polish removers, protective oils, rouges, eye shadows, foundation creams, foundation cake makeup, hair conditioners, eye creams, cold creams and brilliantine hairdressings.
LAURYL GLUCOSIDE
This mild surfactant and detergent is made from coconut oil and sugar. It is often used in shampoos as a detergent and thickening agent.
LAVANDIN ABRIALIS OIL (LAVANDIN ABRIALIS)
Steam distilled from a hybrid developed by crossing true lavender with spike lavender, this oil is non-toxic, non-irritating and non-sensitizing. It is used almost exclusively to add fragrance to products.
LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA (LAVENDER) OIL (LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA)
Steam distilled from an evergreen shrub grown in the Mediterranean region, mainly France, this oil has a pleasant scent and beneficial properties.
LECITHIN
This naturally occurring group of phospholipids can be found in plant and animal cells and is frequently obtained from common egg yolks and soybeans. It is very rich in the B complex vitamins and is highly nutritive for the skin and hair. A natural emulsifier and spreading ingredient, the natural antioxidant and emollient is often used in eye creams, lipsticks, liquid powders, hand creams and lotions, soaps and many other cosmetics.
LITSEA CUBEBA (LITSEA) OIL (LITSEA CUBEBA)
Also known as May Chang, this essential oil’s lemony scent makes it a popular ingredient in perfumes and scented skin creams. /dd>

M

MACADAMIA TERNIFOLIA (MACADAMIA) SEED OIL (MACADAMIA TERNIFOLIA)
Expeller pressed from the seeds of nut trees found in Australia and Hawaii, this monounsaturated oil is has a high content of palmitoleic acid, making it an effective antioxidant. Because palmitoleic acid is also found in human sebum, the oil naturally works with skin, absorbing quickly and acting as an effective emollient. /dd>
MAGNESIUM SULFATE
This small, white crystal resembling salt is often used in bath soaks.
MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA BARK EXTRACT
The dried bark of roots and stems of the Magnolia tree has been used in Chinese herbal medicine for over 2000 years because of its beneficial properties.
MANGIFERA INDICIA (MANGO) SEED BUTTER
This exotic butter is extracted from the seeds of a tropical fruit tree native to India. It has excellent moisturizing properties with high antioxidant content.
MARANTA ARUNDINACEA (ARROWROOT) ROOT POWDER (MARANTA ARUNDINACEA)
Derived from a plant native to the West Indies, this white powder looks and feels like cornstarch. It is a popular ingredient in body powders and gives a silky feel to water when it is added to a milk bath. It is also used to thicken water-based or aloe-based lotions and creams.
MELALEUCA ALTERNIFOLIA (TEA TREE) LEAF OIL (MELALEUCA ALTERNIFOLIA)
Derived from the leaves of trees native to Australia, this essential oil has gained recognition as a popular addition to skin care formulas for its beneficial properties.
MELISSA OFFICINALIS (LEMON BALM) LEAF EXTRACT (MELISSA OFFICINALIS)
Steam distilled from a plant native to the Mediterranean region, this oil adds a sweet, fresh citrus-like smell to personal care products.
MENTHA ARVENSIS (CORNMINT) LEAF OIL (MENTHA ARVENSIS)
Steam distilled from the leaves and flowers, this oil often comes out solid because of its high levels of menthol. It contains significantly more menthol than peppermint, but is used in much the same way as peppermint oil. It is sometimes preferred to peppermint by soap makers because of its strong aroma.
MENTHA PIPERITA (PEPPERMINT) OIL (MENTHA PIPERITA)
Derived from the leaves of a plant commonly found in Europe and North America, this essential oil is known for its soothing, as well as stimulating properties. The fresh-smelling, cooling oil is commonly used in soaps and skin creams.
MENTHIS VIRIDIS (SPEARMINT) LEAF OIL/EXTRACT (MENTHA VIRIDIS)
Derived from the leaves of a plant commonly found in North America, this essential oil has a slightly milder, sweeter aroma than peppermint. In skin care, spearmint is often used in soaps and facial toners to help cleanse and refine pores.
MENTHOL
Soluble in both oil and alcohol, these clear, colorless crystals are steam distilled from peppermint oil. It has a powerful peppermint aroma. When applied to the skin, the ingredient provides a cooling sensation. In skin care products, menthol is added to help balance the oil content of skin and hair.
MICA
This fine mineral powder can be used to reflect light and create a pearl-like effect on the skin.
MONTMORILLONITE
French green clay is mostly montmorillonite and is, therefore, highly efficient at improving oily skin. It is rich in important minerals and phyto-nutrients and is the most commonly used therapeutic clay. It’s also found in facials, body wraps, soaps and body and foot powders.
MORINGA OLEIFERA (MORINGA) OIL (MORINGA OLEIFERA)
Derived from a tree grown in tropical and sub-tropical climates, the properties of this essential oil are well documented by ancient cultures. It is similar in composition to olive oil and is high in oleic acid, which keeps skin feeling soft and smooth. Moringa oil is light and spreads easily on the skin, making it good for use in massage and aromatherapy applications, as well as everyday skin creams, lotions, balms, scrubs and hair care formulas.
MYRISTICA FRAGRANS (NUTMEG) OIL (MYRISTICA FRAGRANS)
Steam distilled from the seeds of trees cultivated in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the West Indies, this essential oil is generally considered to be non-toxic, non-irritating and non-sensitizing and has antioxidant properties. In addition to being a popular addition to foods, it is used as a fragrance in soaps, lotions, detergents, cosmetics and perfumes—especially men’s colognes.

N

NONFAT DRY MILK
Milk has been used in skin care for thousands of years. First developed in Russia in 1802, milk powder is a nourishing addition to bath, bath bomb, milk soap and lotion formulations. It is a natural emollient and is rich in vitamins and minerals. Whole milk powder soothes and moisturizes the skin.

O

OCIMUM BASILICUM (BASIL) OIL (OCIMUM BASILICUM)
Steam distilled or macerated from the leaves and flowers of this plant native to India and now grown throughout the world, this essential oil has refreshing properties.
OENOTHERA BIENNIS (EVENING PRIMROSE) OIL (OENOTHERA BIENNIS)
Expeller pressed from the seeds of an herbaceous plant found in North America and Europe, this oil is a rich source of gamma linoleic acid (GLA), omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids for nourishing the skin. Small amounts are often added to other carrier oils. This ingredient is often found in face creams, lotions and balms.
OLEA EUROPAEA (OLIVE) FRUIT OIL (OLEA EUROPAEA)
Pressed from the pulp of fully ripe olives, this oil is high in oleic acid and is believed to be a good skin conditioner. In soaps, this oil creates a long-lasting, non-drying mild product with creamy lather.
ORYZA SATIVA (RICE) BRAN WAX (ORYZA SATIVA)
Expressed from the husks of rice kernels, this emollient wax is used in a wide variety of cosmetics, including skin and hair care.
ORYZA SATIVA (RICE) BRAN OIL (ORYZA SATIVA)
Expressed from the husks of rice kernels, this oil is an excellent source of vitamin E, fatty acids and antioxidant nutrients. This oil flows onto the skin smoothly and is not greasy or sticky. It is good for massage oils or lotions and is one of the most gentle oils available, making it perfect for eye creams, baby products and light facial and body moisturizers for all skin types. It is an excellent moisturizer under cosmetics and is great for liquid soaps and hand moisturizers.
ORYZA SATIVA (RICE) BRAN POWDER (ORYZA SATIVA)
This powder, made from the ground husks of rice kernels, is gently exfoliating and is an old Japanese secret for smooth, soft skin. It is a popular and effective ingredient in facemasks, body wraps and exfoliating scrubs.

P

PELARGONIUM ODORANTISSIMUM (GERANIUM) OIL (PELARGONIUM ODORANTISSIMUM)
This essential oil originated from South Africa, Madagascar, Egypt and Morocco. The leaves and stalks are used for extraction, and the oil is steam distilled. Geranium oil can be used in a blended massage oil or bath formula. Geranium oil helps balance the sebum production of the skin and, in turn, helps keep the skin supple.
PASSIFLORA INCARNATA (PASSIONFRUIT) FRUIT EXTRACT/SEED OIL (PASSIFLORA INCARNATA)
Cold pressed from the seeds of the fragrant, edible fruit of this perennial vine found in Brazil, Australia, Mexico and Africa, this ingredient is rich in essential fatty acids, vitamins A and C, as well as potassium. Since it is a light oil, similar to sunflower oil, it does not impart a greasy feel. This oil is commonly used in massage oils and sun care products.
PERSEA GRATISSIMA (AVOCADO) OIL (PERSEA GRATISSIMA)
Expeller pressed from the pulp of ripe avocado fruit, this oil is rich in vitamins A, B1, B2, B5 (Panthothenic acid), D and E, minerals, protein, lecithin and fatty acids. It has the highest penetration rate among similar oils (corn, soybean, olive and almond) and is composed mostly of oleic, linoleic and linoleinc acids, as well as palmitic and palmitoleic acids, lecithin, phytosterol and carnotinoids. Avocado oil can be used in massage and moisturizing creams, lotions, balms, body butters, hair oils and lip balms. Its high percentage of unsaponifiables also makes making it an excellent ingredient for soap.
PETROSELINUM CRISPUM (PARSLEY) EXTRACT (PETROSELINUM CRISPUM)
This extract has a warm, herbaceous, spicy aroma. It is believed that this extract is beneficial in anti-aging skin care formulas.
PHYTOSTERYL CANOLA GLYCERIDES
This bioactive natural ingredient is the product of pure natural lipids with a high content of sterol esters and canola glycerides. The ingredient provides excellent moisturizing and soothing properties in skin care products.
PIMENTA RACEMOSA (BAY) OIL (PIMENTA RACEMOSA)
Steam distilled from the leaves of a sturdy evergreen tree native to the West Indies, this essential oil has a sweet, fresh and spicy scent. It is most often used in hair care products. Its distinctive scent also makes it a popular ingredient in men’s aftershaves and colognes.
PIMPINELLA ANISUM (ANISE) SEED OIL (PIMPENELLA ANISUM)
This essential oil has an aroma similar to licorice.
PINUS BALSAMEA (FIR) OIL (PINUS BALSAMEA)
Derived from the needles of fir trees, this essential oil has a crisp, clean Christmas tree scent.
PINUS SYLVESTRIS (PINE NEEDLE) OIL (PINUS SYLVESTRIS)
Steam distilled from the needles of pine trees, this essential oil has a familiar pine scent.
POGOSTEMON CABLINI (PATCHOULI) OIL (POGOSTEMON CABLINI)
Steam distilled from the leaves of the plant, this essential oil has a warm, mellow, earthy scent. It helps regulate oily skin, making it a good additive for acne formulations.
POLYSORBATE 60
This substance consists of stearic acid, derived from vegetable oil. It is often used in cosmetics to solubilize essential oils into water-based products, and is also found in lotions, creams, and skin cleansers.
PRUNUS AMYGDALUS DULCIS (SWEET ALMOND) FLOUR/MEAL (PRUNUS AMYGDALUS)
This flour, made of ground almond shells, is used extensively in ayurvedic skin care regimens and traditional Indian ubtans, or masks, which leave the skin soft and smooth. It is often included in facial and body scrubs for gentle exfoliation.
PRUNUS AMYGDALUS DULCIS (SWEET ALMOND) OIL (PRUNUS AMYGDALUS)
Cold or expeller pressed from the seeds of the almond tree native to the Middle East, now cultivated in California and the Mediterranean, this oil is rich in proteins, vitamin D and olein glyceride linoleic acid. It is considered extremely nourishing when used regularly and is an excellent emollient, known for its ability to soften and re-condition the skin. The oil is light and penetrates easily, making it suitable for use as an aromatherapy carrier oil, a massage oil or in bath oil formulations. It is also used in various skin creams, lotions, balms, scrubs and soaps.
PRUNUS ARMENIACA (APRICOT) KERNEL OIL (PRUNUS ARMENIACA)
Expeller pressed from air-dried apricots, this essential oil is a triglyceride rich in vitamins A and E. In skin care products, this emollient is a natural alternative to mineral oil, adding good lubricity to products. It makes a wonderful massage oil and is used extensively in aromatherapy, face and body creams, lotions, balms, lip care, hair care and soaps.
PRUNUS SEROTINA (WILD CHERRY) BARK EXTRACT (PRUNUS SEROTINA)
Derived from the inner bark of a large, deciduous tree native to North America, this extract has been used to restore and nourish. It is believed to possess antioxidant properties that may be helpful in the fight against the oxidative damage to cells and tissue caused by free radicals.
PUNICA GRANATUM (POMEGRANATE) EXTRACT (PUNICA GRANATUM)
Derived from the fruit of a plant native to northern Africa, this essential oil has a high polyphenol content, which makes it a powerful antioxidant.

Q

QUILLAJA SAPONARIA (QUILLAJA) BARK EXTRACT (QUILLAJA SAPONARIA)
Derived from a Chilean endemic tree, this extract contains antioxidants and proteins, as well as a glucoside saponin, which makes it an effective natural soap, cleanser and foaming agent.

R

RHUS SUCCEDANEA (JAPAN) FRUIT WAX
This fat is squeezed from the fruit of a tree grown in Japan and China. It is commonly used as a substitute for beeswax. Japan wax is a thickener in many cosmetics including lotions, creams, makeup, suntan lotions and baby products.
RICINUS COMMUNIS (CASTOR) SEED OIL (RICINUS COMMUNIS)
Derived by various methods from the seeds of the castor plant, found in India, Russia, Brazil, China and Mediterranean countries, this oil is very thick with a slightly sticky texture and a mild odor. Castor oil is rich in fatty acids and is soothing and lubricating. It is a humectant that attracts moisture to the skin. It also acts as a protective barrier and is routinely used in soaps, hair oils, balms and other thick emulsions for the skin and hair.
ROSA CANINA (ROSE HIPS) SEED OIL (ROSA CANINA)
Derived from the seeds of the rose hip bush, which grows in the Andes Mountains of South America, this oil contains high amounts of linoleic acid and vitamin C, as well as smaller amounts of trans-retinoic acid.
ROSA DAMASCENA (BULGARIAN ROSE) FLOWER OIL (ROSA DAMASCENA)
Steam distilled from the flower that grows in Morocco and Turkey, this essential oil is known as the Queen of Oils because of its “feminine” properties. It has a complex, sweet floral scent and is known for its balancing effect. It is an excellent skincare oil, perfect to restore moisture to dry skin.
ROSA DAMASCENA (BULGARIAN ROSE) PETAL POWDER (ROSA DAMASCENA)
Made from the petals or rosebuds of the Bulgarian rose, this fragrant powder has the same sweet scent as the oil, but to a lesser degree. The powder has gentle cleansing and astringent properties and adds a relaxing aroma to body wraps and blends. It is often found in body powders, facials, salt scrubs, milk baths and soap.
ROSE ATTAR (ROSE OTTO)
This essential oil is steam distilled from the petals of various types of roses – usually the damask rose, widely grown in eastern Europe, India, Iran and China and the cabbage rose, commonly grown in Morocco, France and Egypt. It has an intoxicating fragrance of roses in a sandalwood base. It is used extensively in perfumery. Rose attar can be used to fragrance exotic skin care formulations or “as is” as a natural perfume oil.
ANIBA ROSAEODORA (ROSEWOOD) WOOD OIL (ANIBA ROSAEODORA)
Steam distilled from a tropical evergreen tree native to the Amazon region, this oil is relaxing and deodorizing. Because it is believed to be effective in maintaining the skin’s oil balance, it is used in many massage oils and toners.
ROSEMARINUS OFFICINALIS (ROSEMARY) LEAF OIL/EXTRACT (ROSEMARINUS OFFICINALIS)
Derived from the leaves of the evergreen rosemary shrub, this ingredient has an herbaceous, woody, sharp, camphor-like scent. Its best-known use as a facial oil for extremely dry skin, but it is also found in products for oily skin and acne.
ROYAL JELLY
This secretion of the hypopharyngeal gland of young worker bees contains nectar, pollen, flower parts, vitamins, minerals, bee hormones and other natural ingredients. It is said to be one of the most nutritious substances on earth, and is used to feed select larvae and the adult queen bee, helping her live 40 times longer than her workers. Royal jelly contains essential fatty acids, collagen, lecithin, protein, sugars, mineral salts and vitamins A, B complex, C, D and E, all of which benefit the skin.
RUBUS IDAEUS (RED RASPBERRY) SEED OIL (RUBUS IDAEUS)
Cold pressed from the tiny seeds of raspberries, this oil has an exceptionally high proportion of alpha and gamma tocopherols (vitamin E), vitamin A and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. It has strong antioxidant properties and contains ellagic acid. It is a nourishing addition to balms, creams, sun protection and other skin care products, including acne formulations.

S

SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM (SUGAR CANE) EXTRACT (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM)
Derived from the pulp of the sugar cane plant, this extract has is used in skin care products for its exfoliating properties.
SALVIA OFFICINALIS (SAGE) OIL (SALIVA OFFICINALIS)
Steam distilled from the leaves of an evergreen shrub, this essential oil possesses many properties that are beneficial to the skin.
SALVIA SCLAREA (CLARY SAGE) OIL (SALIVA SCLAREA)
Steam distilled from the flowers and leaves of a biennial herb native to southern Europe, this essential oil is calming to both the body and the mind. It also helps balance the production of sebum, clear oily complexions and control skin conditions like acne. It can be useful in toners and make-up removers.
SANTALUM ALBUM (SANDALWOOD) OIL (SANTALUM ALBUM)
Used for over 4,000 years as a perfume and temple incense, this essential oil has a sweet, buttery, woody aroma that is very sensual. It is uplifting and relaxing and is effective for balancing all types of skin.
SCLEROCARYA BIRREA (MARULA) KERNEL OIL (SCLEROCARYA BIRREA)
Cold pressed from the nuts of a tree indigenous to Africa, this essential oil is rich in antioxidants, including vitamins A and E, as well as oleic acid. It is a great ingredient for dry skin care products. This oil is commonly used as a super fatting oil in soap formulas. It absorbs quickly, hydrates the skin, and increases the smoothness of skin. It is also a good conditioner for hair.
SEA SALT
Naturally harvested sea salt is made of sodium chloride, a soluble mineral that crystallizes in small transparent cubes. In skin care formulas, this ingredient helps to exfoliate the skin. It is often found in bath salts and scrubs, as well as foot scrubs and body polishes.
SESAMUM INDICUM (SESAME SEED) OIL (SESAMUM INDICUM)
Expeller pressed from the seeds of a plant found in tropical regions of Asia, Africa and South America, this heavy oil is rich in essential fatty acids, vitamins A, B and E, calcium, magnesium and phosphorous. It has many of the same emollient properties as olive oil, as well as other nut and vegetable oils. It is often found in massage oil, bath oil and sun care oil formulations.
SHOREA STENOPTERA (ILLIPE) SEED BUTTER (SHOREA STENOPTERA)
Derived from the nuts of a tropical tree, this butter is very similar to cocoa butter. This mild butter helps maintain moisture in the skin. Its firmness and high melting point allows it to lend rigidity to balms, stick formulations and soaps. It is also used in skin and sun care products and massage creams.
SILICA
This white powder, which is slightly soluble in water, occurs abundantly in nature and is an absorbent material for skin creams.
SIMMONDSIA CHINENSIS (JOJOBA) SEED OIL (SIMMONDSIA CHINENSIS)
Expeller pressed from the nuts of a plant found in the deserts of the U.S. and Mexico, this essential oil contains protein and minerals, as well as a waxy substance similar to collagen. Offering the traits of both an oil and a wax, it is an ideal ingredient in soap, cream, lotion, balm and massage oil formulations. It is highly penetrating and closely resembles skin’s natural sebum. In facial products, it helps to remove excess oils and to help balance the skin’s natural oil.
SODIUM BORATE
This mild alkali is used in cosmetics and toiletries as a water softener, preservative and texturizer. It is often combined with beeswax as an emulsifier.
SODIUM CHLORIDE
This concentrated mineral salt derived from the sea is non-toxic and non-irritating. It is commonly used to thicken personal care product formulas.
SODIUM COCOYL HYDROLYZED SOY PROTEIN
Derived from sun-ripened soya beans and stripped coconut fatty acid, this ingredient provides mild, gentle conditioning and generates a rich, natural lather. It is often used as a hair and skin conditioner.
STEARIC ACID
Naturally derived from soybeans, this waxy solid substance is the main ingredient used in making bar soaps to harden and opacify them. It also acts an emulsifier and thickener for lotions and creams.
SUCROSE DISTEARATE
Plant sugars are combined with plant oil fatty acids by simple, non-toxic processes to make this biodegradable surfactant and emulsifier. It is gentle to the skin with a softening, cooling, and moisturizing effect.
SUCROSE LAURATE
Plant sugars are combined with plant oil fatty acids by simple, non-toxic processes to make this biodegradable surfactant and emulsifier. It is gentle to the skin with a softening, cooling, and moisturizing effect.
SUCROSE POLYSTEARATE
Plant sugars are combined with plant oil fatty acids by simple, non-toxic processes to make this biodegradable surfactant and emulsifier. It is gentle to the skin with a softening, cooling, and moisturizing effect.
SUCROSE STEARATE
Plant sugars are combined with plant oil fatty acids by simple, non-toxic processes to make this biodegradable surfactant and emulsifier. It is gentle to the skin with a softening, cooling, and moisturizing effect.
SYMPHYTUM OFFICINALE (COMFREY) EXTRACT (SYMPHYTUM OFFICINALE)
Derived from plants native to Europe and Asia, this extract is known to be beneficial for all skin types.

T

TAPIOCA STARCH
With a similar appearance and texture to flour, this ingredient is made from cassava root, a starchy tropical vegetable that is widely grown in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. It is commonly used as a thickener.
THEOBROMA CACAO (COCOA) SEED BUTTER (THEOBROMA CACAO)
This pure, crushed butter is obtained from the seeds of trees grown in Central and South America and Africa. Known for its hydrating effects and pleasing aroma, cocoa butter is rich in antioxidants and many vitamins and minerals, including vitamin E, which helps to soothe, hydrate and balance the skin. It is often used as a thickening agent in lip balms and skin creams.
THEOBROMA GRANDIFLORUM (CUPUACU) SEED BUTTER (THEOBROMA GRANDIFLORUM)
Cold or expeller pressed from the seeds of trees similar to the cocoa tree and native to the Amazon region, this butter possesses a softer, creamier consistency than cocoa butter and is an effective alternative to lanolin. This emollient butter offers a pleasant touch and softness to the skin. It also is an effective ingredient for use in hair care products intended to add shine and replenish the moisture in hair.
THUJA OCCIDENTALIS (WHITE CEDAR LEAF) OIL (THUJA OCCIDENTALIS)
Steam distilled from the leaves of the White Cedar originally found in Canada, this essential oil possesses a beautiful, woody aroma.
THYMUS VULGARIS (THYME) OIL (THYMUS VULGARIS)
Steam distilled from the flowers of an herb native to Spain, this essential oil has a strong herbaceous, spicy aroma that is energizing, stimulating and toning. This oil is also effective as a deodorizing agent and in regulating sebum in the skin.
TILIA CORDATA (LINDEN) FLOWER EXTRACT (TILIA CORDATA)
Derived from the trees native to Europe and cultivated in North America, this extract has natural emollient properties, and is rich in flavonoids, manganese and vitamin C. Today, this ingredient is often added to cosmetics and shampoos that soothe skin and bring out lustrous highlights in hair.
TITANIUM DIOXIDE
Titanium dioxide occurs in nature as the well-known, naturally occurring minerals rutile, anatase and brookite. The most common form is rutile, which is also the most stable form. Titanium dioxide is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and very high refractive index. This mineral imparts a whiteness to color cosmetics and personal care products applied to the skin, nails and lips, and it helps to increase the opacity of formulas. Because it absorbs, reflects, or scatters light (including ultraviolet radiation in light), it can help protect products from deterioration. This property also makes it an important ingredient in sunscreens, where it can successfully reflect UVA, UVB and UVC rays.
TOCOPHEROL
This natural form of vitamin E is an effective antioxidant, protecting cellular structures against damage from free radicals. Its moisturizing and restorative qualities make it an important component of many skin care products including anti-aging creams and lotions, UV protectant products, moisturizers, and belly creams.
TRITICUM VULGARE (WHEAT) GERM OIL (TRITICUM VULGARE)
Made from the heart of common wheat grains, this oil is high in lecithin, fatty acids and vitamins A, D and E. Because of its high vitamin E content, it has antioxidant properties.

U

URTICA DIOICA (NETTLE) EXTRACT/LEAF POWDER (URTICA DIOICA)
Pressed or steam distilled from the leaves and root of a plant found in temperate regions of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and South America, this ingredient a good source of chlorophyll, histamines, formic acid, mucilage, minerals and vitamins A and D. It is used as a natural, deep cleanser for oily skin. It is often found in hair care products and sometimes used in soaps to give them a natural green color.

V

VACCINIUM MYRTILLUS (BILBERRY) FRUIT/LEAF EXTRACT (VACCINIUM MYRTILLUS)
Derived by maceration from the berries and leaves of a perennial shrub native to northern Europe, North America and Canada, this extract is rich in vitamins A and C, highly astringent and loaded with antioxidant bioflavonoids. Naturally rich in alpha hydroxy acids, bilberry extract offers gentle exfoliation as well.
VANILLA PLANIFOLIA (VANILLA) FRUIT EXTRACT (VANILLA PLANIFOLIA)
Derived by maceration from the beans of the only orchid that produces edible fruit, this extract is a source of polyphenols, which exhibit antioxidant activity. Its nostalgic scent is often used in aromatherapy products to promote relaxation. It may easily be one of the most well-known flavors in the world. The extract is widely used to scent everything from perfumes to candles and lotions. Due to its ability to nourish dry skin and dull hair, vanilla is added to lotion, bath oil and shampoo.
VANILLIN (VANILLA PLANIFOLIA)
Derived from the green seedpods of the vanilla plant, this ingredient is one of the over two hundred organic components that make up the flavor and aroma of vanilla, and it’s the one we most associate with vanilla. It is also used by the fragrance industry in perfumes, and to mask unpleasant odors.
VEGETABLE OIL
This expressed oil of vegetable origin consists primarily of triglycerides of fatty acids. It generally is used as a carrier oil.
VEGETABLE SOAP BASE
Historically, soaps have been made from animal fats, which have been found to clog pores and aggravate certain skin conditions. Over time, new oils were extracted from vegetables, grains and nuts such as coconut oil, olive oil and sunflower oil providing an alternative. Vegetable oil soaps can be of higher quality and are more readily absorbed by the skin.
VITIS VINIFERA (GRAPE) SEED EXTRACT/OIL (VITIS VINIFERA)
Extracted from grape seeds after the fruit is juiced, this oil is rich in antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, protein, GLA and vitamin E. It is a light, slightly astringent, penetrating oil for massage and aromatherapy applications. This oil is easily absorbed by the skin, and is a nourishing addition to lotion, cream, lip balm, eye cream and special formulations intended for dry, damaged or aging skin. Its high linoleic acid content gives it good moisturizing and nourishing properties.

W

WATER
Aqua is the Latin and eau is French for water. “Purified water” and “distilled water” are terms describing the highest quality used in personal care products. These terms describe water that has been stripped of ionic contaminants such as metals, carbonates, bicarbonates and other free radicals that may interfere with chemical reactions in the products and in the body system.

X

XANTHAN GUM
This polysaccharide, or sugar polymer, is a natural thickener derived from corn sugar by a fermentation process. It is a common food additive and is also used to thicken and add volume to lotions, creams and gels. It also works as a suspension agent.

Y

YUCCA SCHIDIGERA LEAF/ROOT/STEM EXTRACT (YUCCA SCHIDIGERA)
Derived by maceration from a plant grown in the dryer regions of North and Central America, this extract has cleansing properties. It is a good source of saponins, minerals, protein and tannin. This extract is an effective foaming agent in shampoo, creating body and volume, stimulating the scalp, reducing oil and helping hair hold a style.

Z

ZEA MAYS (CORN) STARCH (ZEA MAYS)
Cornstarch is a silky powdery starch made from corn. It is used in body powders, cosmetics, milk baths and bath bombs to add silkiness and to soothe the skin. It can be added to diaper area barrier creams to keep the skin dry and protected from moisture. When used in water-based formulations, cornstarch acts as a thickener.
ZINC OXIDE
This white powder has wonderful astringent properties and a great soothing effect for use in many skin care formulas, including calamine lotion. It physically blocks harmful UVA and UVB rays, and is often used in ointments, creams, and lotions to protect against sunburn and other damage to the skin caused by ultraviolet light. Additionally, it is used to thicken lotions and creams, add white pigment to face, body and nursery powders.
ZINGIBER OFFICINALE (GINGER) EXTRACT/OIL (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE)
Steam distilled from the root of the ginger plant, native to India, China and Java, this extract has a peppery, sharp, pungent, aromatic, warm and spicy odor often with a hint of camphor or lemon. Inhaling the scent is said to be stimulating.